Published in: Journal, Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t, Volume : 120, Issue : 4, Pages : 941-949
Author : Banerjee, Manish; Baranwal, Atul; Saha, Soumya; Saha, Ashis; Priestley, Tony
Abstract : Background: Currently approved local anesthetic drugs provide relatively brief local anesthesia that is appropriate and even desirable in some settings, but an extended duration of action beyond their capabilities would be a distinct benefit in other clin. situations. We implemented a drug discovery program that sought to identify novel local anesthetic mols. that specifically demonstrated a long-acting, preferential action on nociceptor sensory afferents that expressed transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. The hypothesis we tested was whether relatively membrane-impermeant local anesthetic mols. could confer long-lasting anesthesia if neuronal access was facilitated by TRP channel activation. The current work describes in vivo studies on a lead mol. that emerged from the discovery program, EN3427, in several rodent pain models. Methods: Studies were performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats using 2 models of acute mech. paw-pinch-evoked and pinprick-evoked nociceptive pain. Behavioral responses to noxious stimuli were assessed at baseline, i.e., before any pharmacol. intervention, and at various timepoints after a single perisciatic or s.c. administration of either EN3427 alone or in combination with lidocaine. Paw withdrawal thresholds or cutaneous trunci reflexes were quantified, and pre-post drug values were compared statistically with anal. of variance followed by post hoc Dunnett multiple range test. Results: A single perisciatic injection of lidocaine (2%) produced relief of paw-pinch-evoked pain that was significantly different from baseline through to the 1-h timepoint (Dunnett multiplicity-adjusted P = 0.0081), as assessed using paw withdrawal or vocalization end points. EN3427 (0.2%), in the same model, produced a long-lasting block, with pain thresholds being significantly above baseline through to the 18-h timepoint (Dunnett multiplicity-adjusted P = 0.0002); the combination of EN3427 (0.2%) plus lidocaine (2%) produced even longer lasting analgesia, with pain thresholds being significantly above baseline through to the 24-h timepoint (Dunnett multiplicity-adjusted P = 0.0073). Similar results were obtained with use of the pinprick approach. A single s.c. injection of lidocaine (2%) produced complete loss of sensation to cutaneous pinprick through 0.5 h, but sensitivity thresholds were no different to baseline by the 1-h timepoint, a similar injection of EN3427 alone (0.2%) produced a loss of sensation that was significantly different from baseline through the 8-h timepoint (Dunnett multiplicity-adjusted P = 0.0045), and the combination of lidocaine (2%) plus EN3427 (0.2%) appeared to further enhance duration of analgesia, although this was significantly different from baseline only through the 10-h timepoint (Dunnett multiplicity-adjusted P = 0.0048). Analgesic efficacy was dose related; using the combined injection approach, we found that increases in the dose of EN3427 with a fixed 2% lidocaine led to substantially extended analgesia and increasing doses of lidocaine combined with a fixed dose of EN3427 (0.2%) led to only modestly increased duration of action. Conclusions: The present studies demonstrate that a new mol. entity, EN3427, produces effective and long-lasting analgesia in 2 rodent pain models. The analgesic effects of EN3427 are significantly longer-lasting than lidocaine and are further extended when EN3427 is combined with lidocaine. The results are discussed with respect to a possible lidocaine-mediated TRP channel activation and facilitated neuronal access of EN3427, with subsequent entrapment conferring extended-duration efficacy.